农药 可能会导致 短期对健康的不利影响, 被称为急性影响, as well as chronic adverse effects that can occur months or years after exposure. Examples of acute health effects 包括 stinging eyes, 皮疹, 水泡, 失明, 恶心想吐, 头晕, 腹泻和死亡. Examples of known chronic effects are 癌症, 出生缺陷，生殖伤害, 免疫毒性, neurological 和 developmental toxicity, 和 disruption of the endocrine system.
Some people are more vulnerable than others to pesticide impacts. 例如, infants 和 young children are 更容易受到影响 比成人 to the toxic effects of pesticides. Farm workers 和 pesticide applicators are also more vulnerable because they receive greater exposures.
For more information about the effects of specific chemicals or pesticide products, 见农药行动网络 农药数据库. For a survey of scientific studies linking pesticides to specific diseases, see Beyond 农药’ Pesticide-induced diseases database.
直接的健康影响 from pesticide exposure 包括s irritation of the nose, 喉咙, 和皮肤引起的灼伤, stinging 和 itching as well as 皮疹 和 水泡. Nausea, 头晕 和 diarrhea are also common. People with asthma may have very severe reactions to some pesticides, particularly pyrethrin/pyrethroid, organophosphate 和 carbamate pesticides.
In many cases, symptoms of pesticide poisoning mimic symptoms of colds or the flu. Since pesticide-related illnesses appear similar or identical to other illnesses, pesticide poisonings are often misdiagnosed 和 under-reported. Immediate symptoms may not be severe enough to prompt an individual to seek medical attention, or a doctor might not even think to ask about pesticide exposure. 尽管如此, 立即就医 if you think you may have been poisoned by pesticides.
慢性健康影响 包括 cancer 和 other tumors; brain 和 nervous system damage; 出生缺陷; 不孕不育 和 other reproductive problems; 和 damage to the liver, 肾脏, 肺和其他身体器官. Chronic effects may not appear for weeks, 暴露几个月甚至几年之后, making it difficult to link health impacts to pesticides.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that — often at extremely low doses — interfere with important bodily functions by mimicking or blocking hormones (the chemical messengers that circulate in blood 和 regulate many body processes including metabolism, 大脑发育, 睡眠周期和压力反应). Some pesticides act as endocrine disruptors 和 have been shown to cause serious harm to animals, 包括癌症, 不育和发育问题. Similar impacts have been associated with 人类接触这些化学物质.
Children are More Vulnerable to Pesticide Exposure
Children are not simply “little adults.“孩子们 more vulnerable to pesticide exposure because their organs, nervous systems 和 immune systems are still developing. Children are also less able to detoxify 和 excrete pesticides. Exposure during certain early development periods 会造成永久性损伤.
In addition to being more vulnerable to pesticide toxicity, children’s behavior 和 physiology make them more likely to receive greater pesticide exposure 比成人. Most pesticide exposure occurs through the skin 和 children have more skin surface for their size 比成人. Children have a higher respiratory rate 和 so inhale airborne pesticides at a faster rate 比成人. Children also consume proportionately more food 和 water — 和 pesticide residues — 比成人. With their increased contact with floors, 草坪和操场, children’s behavior also increases their exposure to pesticides.
Health Effects of Certain Classes of 农药
有机磷酸酯类 & 氨基甲酸盐: 这些农药就像神经毒气: they attack the brain 和 nervous system, interfering with nerve signal transmission. 症状 包括 头疼s, 恶心想吐, 头晕, 呕吐, chest pain, diarrhea, muscle pain 和 confusion. 在严重中毒推荐十大赌博靠谱信誉的平台中, 症状包括抽搐, 呼吸困难, 不由自主排尿, 昏迷和死亡. Acute poisoning of the nervous system by these pesticides affects hundreds of thous和s of people around the world 每年.
土壤熏蒸剂: 这些杀虫剂 应用于土壤, forming a gas that is toxic to nematodes, 真菌, 细菌, 昆虫, 和土壤中的植物. 因为它们是气体, they move from the soil into the air 和 expose people living or working nearby. 常用的土壤熏蒸剂 in California 包括 1,3-dichloropropene, chlorpicrin, metam sodium, metam potassium. 的症状 fumigant exposure 包括 irritation of skin, eyes, lungs (dichloropropene和三氯硝基甲烷), extremely irritating to eyes 和 lungs (美坦钠和美坦钾). Dichloropropene, metam sodium, metam potassium are all 致癌的化学物质 和metam钠 导致生殖危害. In counties where fumigant use is high, premature birth is 更常见的 than in counties with low fumigant use.
拟除虫菊酯: 这些杀虫剂 are synthetic chemicals that are structurally similar to botanical compounds but have been designed to be more persistent. 它们对神经系统有害, there is concern that during pregnancy a fetus is not able to efficiently break down these chemicals. 的症状 拟除虫菊酯中毒包括震颤, 唾液分泌, 头疼, 乏力, 呕吐, 皮肤刺痛瘙痒, 和不自觉的抽搐.
Many pyrethroids also cause long term health problems. 例如, 灭虫菊 causes both cancer 和 reproductive harm. 氯氰菊酯, 氰戊菊酯, 溴氰菊酯 all cause genetic damage 和 reproductive harm. Data from the Center for Disease Control 和 Prevention’s national biomonitoring program 拟除虫菊酯的联系接触 心脏病.